NETGEAR FVS318 Router User Manual

Reference Manual for the Model FVS318 Cable/DSL ProSafe VPN Firewall
Networks, Routing, and Firewall Basics B-5
Subnet Addressing
By looking at the addressing structures, you can see that even with a Class C address, there are a
large number of hosts per network. Such a structure is an inefficient use of addresses if each end of
a routed link requires a different network number. It is unlikely that the smaller office LANs would
have that many devices. You can resolve this problem by using a technique known as subnet
Subnet addressing allows us to split one IP network address into smaller multiple physical
networks known as subnetworks. Some of the node numbers are used as a subnet number instead.
A Class B address gives us 16 bits of node numbers translating to 64,000 nodes. Most
organizations do not use 64,000 nodes, so there are free bits that can be reassigned. Subnet
addressing makes use of those bits that are free, as shown below.
Figure B-2. Example of Subnetting a Class B Address
A Class B address can be effectively translated into multiple Class C addresses. For example, the
IP address of is assigned, but node addresses are limited to 255 maximum, allowing
eight extra bits to use as a subnet address. The IP address of would be interpreted as
IP network address 172.16, subnet number 97, and node number 235. In addition to extending
the number of addresses available, subnet addressing provides other benefits. Subnet addressing
allows a network manager to construct an address scheme for the network by using different
subnets for other geographical locations in the network or for other departments in the
Although the preceding example uses the entire third octet for a subnet address, note that you are
not restricted to octet boundaries in subnetting. To create more network numbers, you need only
shift some bits from the host address to the network address. For instance, to partition a Class C
network number ( into two, you shift one bit from the host address to the network
address. The new netmask (or subnet mask) is The first subnet has network
number with hosts to, and the second subnet has
network number with hosts to
lass B
Network Subnet Node